BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer 

Sample Answer for BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer  Included After Question

In this course, we will discuss the different types of cancers; what factors (genetic, environmental, and behavioral) contribute to cancer development; and what are the most appropriate and useful treatments available in the fight against cancer.

Project Descriptions

Weekly Discussions

Addresses Course Outcomes 1-3:

1. identify properties involved in maintaining homeostasis in order to recognize how certain factors contribute to cancer

2. recognize the complexity of cancer and assess current approaches for screening, diagnosis, and treatment in order to adopt appropriate lifestyle strategies

3. apply knowledge of causes, development, and progression of cancer to ask questions and make informed decisions about personal and public health.

The purpose of the discussions is to continue the conversation introduced in the class reading assignments. You will be given an opportunity to ask questions, and you will respond to questions or scenarios that will enhance the level of your understanding of the course material. It is expected that you will provide responses to the questions posed and provide constructive comments to other posts.

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer 

Title: BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer   

  1. Routine cancer screenings are recommended by physicians and medical practitioners to inform patients who might have pre-dispositions or early signs of cancer.  What is the importance of such screenings regarding staging?

Routine cancer screening can help detect cancer at an early stage when the patient is asymptomatic. Identification of the cancerous cells at an early stage help promote better disease prognosis among patient who seeks timely medical interventions (Barba et al., 2021). When the patient starts preventing symptoms, the cancer is usually in the advanced stages, and even metastasized in the body, making it hard to manage. Routine screening tests are also crucial in staging the patient’s cancer and evaluating the treatment outcome for necessary alterations. Cancer staging helps determine the prognosis of the patient.

What information does staging provide regarding the prognosis of a patient?

Studies show that the survival rate or prognosis of most types of cancer is mainly based on the staging at the time when the patient’s diagnosis was confirmed (Xu et al., 2020). Cancer staging can be done at different times, depending on the information required. For instance, in clinical staging, the extent to which cancer has developed can be determined based on imaging studies, physical examination, biopsies, and endoscopy, giving an idea of the patient’s prognosis. Pathological staging is done before surgery for patients whose first initial therapeutic intervention is the removal of the cancerous cells. This helps in providing precise information that can be used to predict treatment outcomes and patient responses. Recurrent staging is also crucial in monitoring the progress of cancer.

Some cancer screenings have risks associated with them.  Do you think the benefits of the screenings outweigh the risks?   

Several cancer screening tests are available, with the benefits of most of them having been proven as the benefits to others and to be well known. However, before deciding on which screening test to use, it is important to ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks. For instance, routine cancer screening among the high-risk population is important in promoting early detection and timely treatment for a better prognosis (van den Ende et al., 2017). Screening also helps monitor the progress of cancer and determine the best treatment approaches that can help promote the patient’s health. The main limitation of cancer screening is associated with the findings, like the false negative and false positive. As such, it is clear that the benefits of cancer screenings outweigh the risks.


Barba, D., León-Sosa, A., Lugo, P., Suquillo, D., Torres, F., Surre, F., Trojman, L., & Caicedo, A. (2021). Breast cancer, screening, and diagnostic tools: All you need to know. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology157, 103174.

van den Ende, C., Oordt-Speets, A. M., Vroling, H., & van Agt, H. M. E. (2017). Benefits and harms of breast cancer screening with mammography in women aged 40-49 years: A systematic review. International Journal of Cancer141(7), 1295–1306.

Xu, Q., Yuan, J.-P., Chen, Y.-Y., Zhang, H.-Y., Wang, L.-W., & Xiong, B. (2020). Prognostic Significance of the Tumor-Stromal Ratio in Invasive Breast Cancer and a Proposal of a New Ts-TNM Staging System. Journal of Oncology2020, 1–10.

A Sample Answer 2 For the Assignment: BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer 

Title: BIOL 304 6380 The Biology of Cancer   

Step 5: Reflection Discussion

Write a brief summary of what you learned from the public service announcement assignment, highlighting the top 3 most interesting things you learned. 

A public service announcement can be described as the information or knowledge shared with the general public which raises awareness about a pressing issue. From this course’s public service announcement assignment, I was able to identify the educational needs of the population at risk of breast cancer. Such educational needs include highlighting the risk factors, development process, screening, diagnosis, and prevention of breast cancer (Britt et al., 2020). Secondly, I was able to appreciate the need of understanding the literacy level of your target population to promote the use of appropriate wording for better understanding and achievement of the intended outcome. For instance, when the literacy level of your target population is low, like in my case, simple wording is needed without excluding important data. Finally, in the development of the public service announcement presentation, I was able to utilize appropriate research skills to ensure that the information shared is evidence-based, valid, credible, and relevant to the issue being discussed.

Also, do you believe that this project, along with the course readings, quizzes, and weekly discussions helped you achieve the 3 course outcomes?  Explain with at least one example. 

Taking part in this project has been very educative and enlightening on the development, management, and prevention of cancer. Through the assignments, weekly discussions, quizzes, and course reading, I can comfortably affirm the achievement of all three course outcomes outlined during the introductory class. For instance, with the first learning outcome on the involvement of homeostasis and the development of cancer, I currently understand that the success of new mutant cells in the development of tumors greatly relies on the disruption of both intrinsic and extrinsic homeostatic control (Dorling et al., 2021). With the second learning outcome on the complexity of cancer, I was able to identify and apprehend the different screening, diagnosing, and treatment approaches for breast cancer in addition to lifestyle modification as the most effective preventive approach. With the application of knowledge gained through this course, I still find some gaps in the journey to discover the cure for cancer, wondering if cancer progression can be targeted by a single therapeutic intervention, or will require multiple strategies.


Britt, K. L., Cuzick, J., & Phillips, K.-A. (2020). Key steps for effective breast cancer prevention. Nature Reviews Cancer20(8), 417–436.

Dorling, L., Carvalho, S., Allen, J., González-Neira, A., Luccarini, C., Wahlström, C., Pooley, K. A., Parsons, M. T., Fortuno, C., Wang, Q., Bolla, M. K., Dennis, J., Keeman, R., Alonso, M. R., Álvarez, N., Herraez, B., Fernandez, V., Núñez-Torres, R., Osorio, A., & Valcich, J. (2021). Breast Cancer Risk Genes — Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women. New England Journal of Medicine384(5), 428–439.