BEHS 453 Discussion 2: Barriers & Help Seeking

BEHS 453 Discussion 2: Barriers & Help Seeking

One of the most common questions the general public asks about intimate partner violence (IPV) is “Why does she stay?”

In Module 1, Lawrence Green and his colleagues identified three types of factors that can affect the help-seeking process by either encouraging or discouraging action:

  1. Predisposing factors: attitudes, perceptions, or beliefs that either facilitate or hinder personal motivation to act
  2. Enabling factors: factors that either help by their presence or hinder by their absence like the ability to obtain necessary assistance (limited facilities, inadequate personnel, lack of funds)
  3. Reinforcing factors: characteristics of services or attitudes of caregivers that assist in decision-making like the feedback or attention received.

For this purposes of this discussion topic please complete the following:

  1. Take a look at the Lisa Steinberg/Hedda Nussbaum Case Study listed in Module 1.
  2. Respond to the following:
    1. Explain the possible issues affecting the help-seeking behavior of Hedda Nussbaum, including issues in the victim and offender response system that inhibited appropriate intervention
  3. Please support your response with resources (including in-text citations).

Note: The Lisa Steinberg/Hedda Nussbaum Case Study can be found under Week 1 Learning Resources. Under “Models, Theories, …” go to commentary. It is under the section For Further Thought: Review the case history (This link should also work:

  • Post your original discussion response by Saturday, 11:59 p.m. ET.
  • Post replies in two other students’ threads by Tuesday, 11:59 p.m. ET.
  • See the Syllabus under “Project Descriptions” for a detailed description of expectations for both original question posts and replies to others.

Week 2: Dynamics and Forms of Domestic Violence

Last week, we walked about the domestic violence definitions and theories. This week, we’ll take a more in-depth look into the dynamic and forms of domestic violence. While domestic violence has certain similarities to other forms of family violence—such as child abuse, child-to-parent violence, sibling violence or elder abuse—it has certain unique characteristics that make it distinct. We will investigate this further by discussing these dynamics and forms of domestic violence.

The systems model, as it applies to the study of domestic and family violence, incorporates several complex areas of study. It allows us to:

  • view the domestic and family unit from four major perspectives – a small organizational system, a political system, a psychodynamic system, and a developmental system that follows a basic course of emotional development.
  • examine the developmental stages of the domestic and family life cycle, with emphasis on the risk factors for violence within an intergenerational framework.
  • analyze changes in the domestic and family structure as it interacts with societal changes that demand familial adaptation.

It’s crucial to the study of family violence to recognize the impact of developmental issues on normal coping mechanisms. An Eriksonian model is used to explore the significance of traumatic events at different developmental stages. Erikson’s life-span perspective describes the developmental tasks of each life stage and helps us understand how abuse impedes achievement of these tasks. This approach leads into an examination of the interaction between individual and relationship developments as well as the subsequent potential for domestic and family violence.

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BEHS 453 Discussion 2: Barriers & Help Seeking
BEHS 453 Discussion 2: Barriers & Help Seeking

This week, we will continue to dive deeper into the different theories, dynamics, and forms of domestic violence and then evaluate the impact of domestic violence on the society – perceiving domestic violence as (1) economic issue, (2) public health issue, and (3) human rights issue.

Estimated Time

Over the next week, you should spend approximately 9 – 12 hours to fully engage in the materials and to complete all the activities. Note, this is just an estimate of the time you will need to complete this week’s work. Each student works at a different pace, so you may spend more time or less; however, be sure to keep this estimate in mind when planning your week. Remember to build in time to work on longer term projects as well.


  • Evaluate various conceptualizations of the family as they relate to domestic violence
  • Analyze the dichotomous approaches of the control vs. independence continuum
  • Assess how domestic violence is an economic, public health, and human rights issue
  • Summarize the developmental issues of the six major life-cycle stages of the domestic and family unit and the vulnerabilities inherent in each
  • Discuss and articulate the possible issues affecting the barriers and help-seeking behaviors with other students in this week’s discussion

Activity List

  • Read and explore all required and optional materials. This will provide you the background knowledge to successfully engage in the content.
  • Complete Discussion 2.
    • Post your original response to the discussion prompt by Sunday evening at 11:59 p.m. ET.
    • Post high quality responses to at least two classmates by Tuesday evening at 11:59 p.m. ET.
  • Complete Quiz 1.
  • Looking Ahead: Start thinking about Group Project Part 1: Group Proposal (one for each group) which is due Week 3.

If you have any questions, please send an email or add your question on “Ask the Professor.”

APA Writing Checklist
Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.
☐ APA paper template (located in the Student Success Center/Writing Center) is utilized for the correct format of the paper. APA style is applied, and format is correct throughout.
☐ The title page is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ The introduction is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ Topic is well defined.
☐ Strong thesis statement is included in the introduction of the paper.
☐ The thesis statement is consistently threaded throughout the paper and included in the conclusion.
☐ Paragraph development: Each paragraph has an introductory statement, two or three sentences as the body of the paragraph, and a transition sentence to facilitate the flow of information. The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.
☐ All sources are cited. APA style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.
☐ Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and APA style, and format is free of error.
Scholarly Resources: Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.
Examples of Scholarly Resources include: Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.
Peer-Reviewed Journals: Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.
Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.
Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.
☐ The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Utilize writing resources such as Grammarly, LopesWrite report, and ThinkingStorm to check your writing.