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Theories of Behavior Timeline

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Complete the following table by reordering the theorists according to the relevant date (and providing these dates), writing at least 90 words to describe what the particular theorist was known for and a real-world application of the theory.

Might maternal depression also have an adverse effect on birth outcomes? A research review concluded that maternal depression is linked to preterm birth (Mparmpakas & others, 2013). And a recent study discovered that maternal depression during pregnancy was associated with low birth weight in full-term offspring (Chang & others, 2014). There is some concern about pregnant women taking antidepressant medication. For example, a recent research review concluded that antidepressant medication use during pregnancy is linked to slightly increased risks of cardiac malfunctions in the fetus and persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn (Pearlstein, 2015). Also, a recent study found that taking antidepressants early in pregnancy was linked to an increased risk of miscarriage (Almeida & others, 2016). Further, a recent study revealed that taking antidepressants in the second or third trimester of pregnancy was linked to an increased risk of autism spectrum disorders in children (Boukhris & others, 2016).

In one study, in China, the longer fathers smoked, the

higher the risk that their children would develop cancer (Ji & others, 1997). What are some other

paternal factors that can influence the development of the fetus and the child?©Ryan Pyle/Corbis/Getty Images

Paternal Factors So far, we have discussed how characteristics of the mother—such as drug use, disease, diet and nutrition, age, and emotional states—can influence prenatal development and the development of the child. Might there also be some paternal risk factors? Indeed, there are several. Men’s exposure to lead, radiation, certain pesticides, and petrochemicals may cause abnormalities in sperm that lead to miscarriage or diseases such as childhood cancer (Cordier, 2008). The father’s smoking during the mother’s pregnancy also can cause problems for the offspring (Agricola & others, 2016; Han & others, 2015). In one study, heavy paternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of early miscarriage (Venners & others, 2005). This negative outcome may be related to the mother’s exposure to secondhand smoke. And in a recent study, paternal smoking around the time of the child’s conception was linked to an increased risk of the child developing leukemia (Milne & others, 2012).



Name of theorist Relevant dates Description of what the theoriest is known for Real-world application of the theory
I. Pavlov      
J. Locke      
B.F. Skinner      
J. Thorndike      
W. Wundt      
F. Keller      
J. Watson      
I. Lovaas      
A. Bandura      
Ogden Lindsley      
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