Select a research article that uses Psychophysiology methods (i.e., brain imaging, electrical recording, TMS, heart rate, etc.) 1- to 2-paragraph summary of the article you found from the Walden Library. Briefly explain the study’s background and research method. Next, explain how you could apply the same method used in the article you just summarized to study a different topic in cognitive psychology. State your new topic, your research question, and explain how and you would use the method to study the topic you selected.
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General Principles A teratogen is any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes. The field of study that investigates the causes of birth defects is called teratology (Eltonsy & others, 2016; Kaushik & others, 2016; Stancil & others, 2016). Teratogens include drugs, incompatible blood types, environmental pollutants, infectious diseases, nutritional deficiencies, maternal stress, advanced maternal and paternal age, and environmental pollutants. The dose, genetic susceptibility, and time of exposure to a particular teratogen influence both the severity of the damage to an embryo or fetus and the type of defect: (1) Dose— The dose effect is rather obvious—the greater the dose of an agent, such as a drug, the greater the effect. (2) Genetic susceptibility—The type or severity of abnormalities caused by a teratogen is linked to the genotype of the pregnant woman and the genotype of the embryo or fetus (de Planell-Saguer, Lovinsky-Desir, & Miller, 2014). (3) Time of exposure—Teratogens do more damage when they occur at some points in development than at others. The probability of a structural defect is greatest early in the embryonic period, when organs are being formed (Holmes, 2011). After organogenesis is complete, teratogens are less likely to cause anatomical defects. Instead, exposure during the fetal period is more likely to stunt growth or create problems in the way organs function. To examine some key teratogens and their effects, let’s begin with drugs.
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