Assignment: Psychology/ Powerpoint Slides

CHAPTER 2 Biological Beginnings CHAPTER OUTLINE • THE EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE • Natural Selection and Adaptive Behavior

• Evolutionary Psychology

• GENETIC FOUNDATIONS OF DEVELOPMENT • Genes and Chromosomes

• Genetic Principles

• Chromosome and Gene-Linked Abnormalities

• THE INTERACTION OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT: THE NATURE- NURTURE DEBATE • Behavior Genetics

• Heredity-Environment Correlations

• The Epigenetic View and Gene × Environment (G × E) Interaction

• Conclusions About Heredity-Environment Interaction

• PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT • The Course of Prenatal Development

• Prenatal Tests

• Infertility and Reproductive Technology

• Hazards to Prenatal Development

• Prenatal Care

• BIRTH AND THE POSTPARTUM PERIOD • The Birth Process

• The Transition from Fetus to Newborn

• Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants

• Bonding

• The Postpartum Period

Stories of Life-Span Development: The Jim and Jim Twins Jim Springer and Jim Lewis are identical twins. They were separated at 4 weeks of age and did

not see each other again until they were 39 years old. Both worked as part-time deputy sheriffs,

vacationed in Florida, drove Chevrolets, had dogs named Toy, and married and divorced women

named Betty. One twin named his son James Allan, and the other named his son James Alan.

Both liked math but not spelling, enjoyed carpentry and mechanical drawing, chewed their

fingernails down to the nubs, had almost identical drinking and smoking habits, had

hemorrhoids, put on 10 pounds at about the same point in development, first suffered headaches

at the age of 18, and had similar sleep patterns.

Jim and Jim do have some differences. One wears his hair over his forehead, the other slicks it

back and has sideburns. One expresses himself best orally; the other is more proficient in

writing. But, for the most part, their profiles are remarkably similar.

Another pair of identical twins, Daphne and Barbara, were called the “giggle sisters”

by researchers because after being reunited they were always making each other laugh.

A thorough search of their adoptive families’ histories revealed no gigglers. The giggle Page

36 sisters ignored stress, avoided conflict and controversy whenever possible, and showed

no interest in politics.

Jim and Jim and the giggle sisters were part of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart,

directed by Thomas Bouchard and his colleagues. The study brings identical twins (who are

identical genetically because they come from the same fertilized egg) and fraternal twins (who

come from different fertilized eggs) from all over the world to Minneapolis to investigate their

lives. There the twins complete personality and intelligence tests, and provide detailed medical

histories, including information about diet and smoking, exercise habits, chest X-rays, heart

stress tests, and EEGs. The twins are asked more than 15,000 questions about their family and

childhood, personal interests, vocational orientation, values, and aesthetic jud