Post an explanation of the difference between accrual accounting and cash accounting, and when each might be used. Then, describe a task you might perform or an item you might use daily, and explain where the cost should appear on a balance sheet, and why. Finally, assess how cash flow issues could impact your own organization (or one with which you are familiar).
Sources of Variability Combining the genes of two parents in their offspring increases genetic variability in the population, which is valuable for a species because it provides more characteristics on which natural selection can operate (Belk & Borden Maier, 2016; Simon, 2017). In fact, the human genetic process creates several important sources of variability. First, the chromosomes in the zygote are not exact copies of those in the mother’s ovaries and the father’s testes. During the formation of the sperm and egg in meiosis, the members of each pair of chromosomes are separated, but which chromosome in the pair goes to the gamete is a matter of chance. In addition, before the pairs separate, pieces of the two chromosomes in each pair are exchanged, creating a new combination of genes on each chromosome. Thus, when chromosomes from the mother’s egg and the father’s sperm are brought together in the zygote, the result is a truly unique combination of genes.
Another source of variability comes from DNA. Chance events, a mistake by the cellular machinery, or damage caused by an environmental agent such as radiation may produce a mutated gene, a permanently altered segment of DNA (Bauman, 2015; Freeman & others, 2017). Even when their genes are identical, however, as for the identical twins described at the beginning of the chapter, people vary. The difference betweengenotypes and phenotypes helps us understand this source of variability. All of a person’s genetic material makes up his or her genotype. There is increasing interest in studying susceptibility genes, those that make the individual more vulnerable to specific diseases or accelerated aging, and longevity genes, those that make the individual less vulnerable to certain diseases and more likely to live to an older age (Cho & Suh, 2016; Dong & others, 2015; Sutphin & Korstanje, 2016). These are aspects of the individual’s genotype. However, not all of the genetic material is apparent in an individual’s observed and measurable characteristics. A phenotype consists of observable characteristics, including physical characteristics (such as height, weight, and hair color) and psychological characteristics (such as personality and intelligence). For each genotype, a range of phenotypes can be expressed, providing another source of variability (Klug & others, 2016; Solomon & others, 2015). An individual can inherit the genetic potential to grow very large, for example, but good nutrition, among other things, will be essential to achieving that potential.