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Circle the correct answer for every Question below, then answer the rationalization below each question in your own words, from your own schemata:

1. The effects of shifting time zones or doing shift work include all of the following EXCEPT

a. hallucinations. d. increased risk of mistakes.

b. decreased productivity. e. impaired attention & concentration.

c. irritability.

You eliminated one answer. What would it take to cause the thing you eliminated to occur? Explain in your own words in one small paragraph: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. REM sleep may be characterized by

a. decreased adrenaline. d. more frequent and vivid dreams.

b. decreased brain activity. e. slow & regular heart rate.

c. sleepwalking.

You chose one correct answer. In which stages do each of these other four phenomenon occur?

i) _______________________________________________________________________________________

ii) _______________________________________________________________________________________

iii) _______________________________________________________________________________________

iv) _______________________________________________________________________________________

3. When we first fall asleep after being sleep deprived, our brain attempts to catch up on the missed REM sleep before the missed deep sleep. This is called

a. REM sleep deprivation.

b. deep sleep deprivation.

c. REM sleep rebound.

d. paradoxical sleep.

How long does it take to get caught up after being sleep deprived? Explain in your own words: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

4. Sleepwalking and sleep terrors are most likely to occur during ________ sleep.

a. REM d. stage 3

b. stage 1 e. stage 4

c. stage 2

What is sleepwalking? What phenomenon is occurring?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

What are night terrors? What phenomenon is occurring?___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

5. Individuals who experience periods of time during the night when their breathing stops may be diagnosed with

a. narcolepsy. c. insomnia.

b. sleep apnea. d. somniloquy.

What is the treatment for this? Is it curable? Explain these answers in your own words: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

6. According to Freud, dreams are

a. continuations of the mental processes occurring when the person falls asleep.

b. an expression of our unconscious desires and needs.

c. not very meaningful.

d. combinations of random neural signals.

What do YOU think dreams are? Explain in your own words: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

7. The three stages of memory (not memory storage) in sequence are:

a. short-term memory, long-term memory, and retrieval.

b. encoding, storage, and retrieval.

c. encoding, retrieval, and forgetting.

d. sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.

Explain each stage in your own words:

A)_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

B)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

C)__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

8. Lacey can remember how to ride a bike and how to drive a car. These are examples of

a. procedural memory. c. episodic memory.

b. implicit memory. d. semantic memory.

Why can’t Lacey remember the information on her vocabulary test last week? Tell me in your own words: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

9. Ramone watched an episode of American Idol and saw 12 singers perform. Later his wife asked about the performers, and he could only remember the last 3 singers who performed. This is an example of

a. a flashbulb memory. c. the primacy effect.

b. episodic memory. d. the recency effect.

What if he had remembered one of the earlier singers because she reminded him of an old girlfriend? What kind of memory would that have been? Explain: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

10. Alexander went to the phone to call his parents and accidentally dialed their old number instead of their new number. This is an example of

a. the primacy effect. c. proactive interference.

b. the recency effect. d. retroactive interference.

He remembered the number with area code easily in three sections of three/three/four numbers. What is this process of remembering called? Give me another example of when you use this process? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

11. When students answer multiple choice exams, the instructor is using which measure of retrieval?

a. recall b. recognition c. relearning d. None of the above

This exam type does not involve much higher order or critical thinking. What type of exam questioning would require a student to think more and draw from their own schemata? Explain: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

12. Many people can recall vivid details about what we were doing and who we were with when we heard about the terrorist attacks on 9/11. This is an example of

a. imagery. c. the primacy effect.

b. state-dependent learning. d. flashbulb memories.

You may have been too young to remember 9/11. Do you have a very vivid memory from Hurricane Rita? What is it? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

13. In Pavlov’s study of classical conditioning, the dog’s salivation to the bell was the

a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.

b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the dog’s initial salivation to the meat be considered? ____________________________________

What would the initial presentation of the meat powder be considered? ________________________________

What about the presentation of the bell? _________________________________________________________

14. Your cat comes running when she hears the can opener because the sound of the can opener has been paired with “dinner time” for several months. The sound of the can opener is a(n)

a. unconditioned stimulus. c. unconditioned response.

b. conditioned stimulus. d. conditioned response.

What would the cat’s running to the sound of the can opener be considered? ___________________________

What would dinner time without the can opener normally be considered? ______________________________

15. The weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response after the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented alone is a process called

a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.

b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.” (Not our fishing example from class):

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

16. After “Little Albert” was conditioned to fear a white rat, he later became afraid of a stuffed animal and

other white, furry things. This is called

a. generalization. c. spontaneous recovery.

b. discrimination. d. extinction.

Give me an example of this phenomenon in “real life.”:

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

17. Common examples of classical conditioning in our everyday lives include all of the following EXCEPT

a. drug abuse and addiction.

b. taste aversion (after food poisoning).

c. fears and phobias.

d. rewards and punishments.

Why did you eliminate the answer you chose? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

18. When Johnny brought home bad grades on his report card, his mother scolded him and told him he had to do extra chores for two weeks. This is an example of

a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.

b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

19. When Johnny helped his grandmother clean out her attic and mow her yard, his parents removed his extra chores. This is an example of

a. positive reinforcement. c. positive punishment.

b. negative reinforcement. d. negative punishment.

Explain why you answered positive or negative, and explain why you answered reinforcement or punishment: ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

20. Using the information from your SLEEP LOG, your textbook, your PPT notes, and our discussion in class, describe for me, in one very brief paragraph, what you learned about YOURSELF with regard to the following concepts: CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS, LARK OR OWL, SLEEP DEPRIVATION, DREAMS, SLEEP STAGES, SLEEP CYCLES, ALTERED STATES OF CONSCIOUSNESS, MEMORIES, AND LEARNING.

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