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Question: Describe the major problem between Global Governance and Health in low income countries, discussing one major problem.

Word limit: 500

no plagiarism

no copy past

deadline 17-12-2017

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Chromosome Abnormalities Sometimes a gamete is formed in which the combined sperm and ovum do not have their normal set of 23 chromosomes. The most notable examples involve Down syndrome and abnormalities of the sex chromosomes. Figure 4 describes some chromosome abnormalities, along with their treatment and incidence.

Name Description Treatment Incidence

Down syndrome

An extra chromosome causes mild

to severe intellectual disabilities

and physical abnormalities.

Surgery, early

intervention, infant

stimulation, and special

learning programs

1 in 1,900 births at age 20

1 in 300 births at age 35

1 in 30 births at age 45

Klinefelter

syndrome (XXY)

An extra X chromosome causes

physical abnormalities.

Hormone therapy can

Down Syndrome Down syndrome is one of the most common genetically linked causes of intellectual disability; it is also characterized by certain physical features (Lewanda & others, 2016). An individual with Down syndrome has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over the eyelids, a thickened tongue, short limbs, and retardation of motor and mental abilities. The syndrome is caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21. It is not known why the extra chromosome is present, but the health of the male sperm or female ovum may be involved. Down syndrome appears approximately once in every 700 live births. Women between the ages of 16 and 34 are less likely to give birth to a child with Down syndrome than are younger or older women. African American children are rarely born with Down syndrome.

These athletes, several of whom have Down syndrome, are participating in a Special Olympics

competition. Notice the distinctive facial features of the individuals with Down syndrome, such as a

round face and a flattened skull. What causes Down syndrome?© James Shaffer/PhotoEdit

Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities Recall that a newborn normally has either an X and a Y chromosome, or two X chromosomes. Human embryos must possess at least one X chromosome to be viable. The most common sex-linked chromosome abnormalities involve the presence of an extra chromosome (either an X or a Y) or the absence of one X chromosome in females.

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