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· Using the theory of evolution, discuss your understanding of this theory. How does natural selection explain the development of personality? What emotional responses and social behaviors are derived from natural selection?

· Develop a treatment technique that you would apply with a client using the genetic and biological theories of personality development. How do you think this would help your clients achieve their treatment goals? After reviewing at least two students’ treatment techniques, how would you be able to implement this technique with your own clients?

· Combine the theory developed by Eysenck with the other theories related to genetic and biological aspects of personality development. What are the benefits of these theories?

Prescription and Nonprescription Drugs Prescription drugs that can function as teratogens include antibiotics, such as streptomycin and tetracycline; some antidepressants; certain hormones, such as progestin and synthetic estrogen; and isotretinoin (often prescribed for acne) (Gonzalez- Echavarri & others, 2015). In a recent study, isotretinoin was the fourth most common drug given to female adolescents who were seeking contraception advice from a physician (Stancil & others, 2016). However, physicians did not give the adolescent girls adequate information about the negative effects of isotretinoin on offspring if the girls become pregnant. In a recent review of teratogens that should never be taken during the first trimester of pregnancy, isotreninoin was on the prohibited list (Eltonsy & others, 2016). Nonprescription drugs that can be harmful include diet pills and high doses of aspirin.

Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs act on the nervous system to alter states of consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods. Examples include caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine, as well as illegal drugs such as cocaine, marijuana, and heroin. Caffeine People often consume caffeine by drinking coffee, tea, or colas, or by eating chocolate. Research has been mixed on the effects of caffeine intake by pregnant women on the fetus (Chen & others, 2016; Hahn & others, 2015; Sengpiel & others, 2013). However, the influence of increased consumption of energy drinks that typically have extremely high levels of caffeine on the development of offspring has not yet been studied. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that pregnant women either not consume caffeine or consume it only sparingly. Alcohol Heavy drinking by pregnant women can be devastating to offspring (Alexander, Dasinger, & Intapad, 2015; Valenzuela & others, 2016). Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a cluster of abnormalities and problems that appear in the offspring of mothers who drink alcohol heavily during pregnancy (Coles & others, 2016; Roozen & others, 2016). The abnormalities include facial deformities and defective limbs, face, and heart (Arnold & others, 2013; Cook & others, 2016). Most children with FASD have learning problems, and many are below average in intelligence; some have an intellectual disability (Harper & others, 2014; Khoury & Milligan, 2016). A recent study revealed that children with FASD have deficiencies in the brain pathways involved in working memory (Diwadkar & others, 2012). A recent research review concluded that FASD is linked Page 57to a lower level of executive function in children, especially in planning (Kingdon, Cardoso, & McGrath, 2016). And in a recent study, FASD was associated with both externalized and internalized behavior problems in childhood (Tsang & others, 2016). Also, in a recent study in the United Kingdom, the life expectancy of individuals with FASD was only 34 years of age, about 42 percent of the life expectancy of the general population (Thanh & Jonsson, 2016). In this study, the most common causes of death among individuals with FASD were suicide (15 percent), accidents (14 percent), and poisoning by illegal drugs or alcohol (7 percent). Although mothers of FASD infants are heavy drinkers, many mothers who are heavy drinkers may not have children with FASD or may have one child with FASD and other children who do not have it. What are some guidelines for alcohol use during pregnancy? Even drinking just one or two servings of beer or wine or one serving of hard liquor a few days a week can have negative effects on the fetus, although it is generally agreed that this level of alcohol use will not cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (Valenzeula & others, 2012). The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that no alcohol be consumed during pregnancy, as does the French Alcohol Society (Rolland & others, 2016). And research suggests that it may not be wise to consume alcohol at the time of conception. One study revealed that intakes of alcohol by both men and women during the weeks of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss (Henriksen & others, 2004).

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