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You are the chemical addiction counselor in the Cumberland Heights inpatient treatment facility. You are responsible for orienting each patient into the program.

  • Explain the negative impact chemical addiction has on the body, mind, and family relationships.
  • Explain the different types of drugs that are related to the increased risk of crimes and violence.
  • Explain the different types of treatment that are offered by your facility. Make sure you include individual counseling, group counseling, family counseling, and medication management.
  • Explain the effectiveness of each method related to drug addiction. What intervention does each method utilize?

At approximately 6 to 24 weeks after conception, neuronal migration occurs (Nelson, 2012). Cells begin moving outward from their point of origin to their appropriate locations and creating the different levels, structures, and regions of the brain (Miyazaki, Song, & Takahashi, 2016; Zeisel, 2011). Once a cell has migrated to its target destination, it must mature and develop a more complex structure. At about the 23rd prenatal week, connections between neurons begin to form, a process that continues postnatally (Kostovic, Judas, & Sedmak, 2011; Miller, Huppi, & Mallard, 2016). We will have much more to say about the structure of neurons, their connectivity, and the development of the infant brain.

Prenatal Tests Together with her doctor, a pregnant woman will decide the extent to which she should undergo prenatal testing. A number of tests can indicate whether a fetus is developing normally; these include ultrasound sonography, fetal MRI, chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis, maternal blood screening, and noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The decision to have a given test depends on several criteria, such as the mother’s age, medical history, and genetic risk factors.

Ultrasound Sonography An ultrasound test is generally performed 7 weeks into a pregnancy and at various times later in pregnancy. Ultrasound sonography is a noninvasive prenatal medical procedure in which high-frequency sound waves are directed into the pregnant woman’s abdomen (Goncalves, 2016; Li & others, 2015). The echo from the sounds is transformed into a visual representation of the fetus’s inner structures. This technique can detect many structural abnormalities in the fetus, including microencephaly, a form of intellectual disability involving an abnormally small brain; it can also give clues to the baby’s sex and indicate whether there is more than one fetus (Calvo-Garcia, 2016; Rink & Norton, 2016). A recent research review concluded that many aspects of the developing prenatal brain can be detected by ultrasound in the first trimester and that about 50 percent of spina bifida cases can be identified at this time, most of these being severe cases (Engels & others, 2016). There is virtually no risk to the woman or fetus in using ultrasound. Page 54

Chorionic Villus Sampling At some point between the 10th and 12th weeks of pregnancy, chorionic villus sampling may be used to screen for genetic defects and chromosome abnormalities. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a prenatal medical procedure in which a tiny tissue sample from the placenta is removed and analyzed (Lankford & others, 2015; Monni & others, 2016). The results are available in about 10 days.

A 6-month-old poses with the

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