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I would like someone to help me with a careplan and research paper in APA format.

Patient illness: hypertension, cardiomyopathy, rheumatoid arthritis. Please follow attachment .

Schiavo had not appointed a surrogate, in accordance with Florida law, her husband was

authorised to act as the proxy decision-maker, ahead of her other family members (‘‘FLA.

STAT. § 765.401(1)’’ 2005; Noah 2006). In an ensuing series of intense court battles over a

period of 7 years, including the controversial intervention of the US Congress, Theresa

Schiavo’s parents, Robert and Mary Schindler, fought against Michael Schiavo’s desig-

nation as legal surrogate and his request to withdraw the life-sustaining treatment from his

wife. Despite immense pressure from political groups, all state and federal courts which

heard the case ruled in favour of Michael Schiavo’s application.

In 2004, in what is seen to have been a response to Theresa Schiavo’s case, a pro-

nouncement was made by the then Pope John Paul II concerning the impermissibility of the

withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration (Bülow et al. 2008; Noah 2006). This was

relied on by the Schindlers, arguing that since their daughter was a practising Catholic, she

would have been inclined to abide by the papal decree (Noah 2006). Although the courts

recognised the relevance of a patient’s religious affiliations, no proper inference could be

made as to Theresa’s personal understanding and level of adherence to Catholic principles,

and thus, it was difficult to form a decision in that respect (Noah 2006). This highlights the

need for a more effective mechanism to facilitate religious and spiritual awareness in end-

of-life care, so that ethical and social implications can be ‘‘anticipated and acted upon in

advance rather than post factum’’ (Steinberg 2003). On that note, it is argued that the legal

system is not the most appropriate platform to cope with the different ethical dilemmas

created by the dynamic changes in the medical world; instead, multidisciplinary ethic

committees may prove to be more efficacious in developing and recommending policies

J Relig Health (2016) 55:119–134 131


and procedures to resolve ethical conflict (Steinberg 2003), which are more pronounced at

the end of life.


In a world of increasing cultural pluralism and multi-faith societies, there is an undeniable

need for those involved in health services to have increased awareness and understanding

of the various and distinct value and belief systems of the patients whom they attend to.

Sensitivity towards cultural and religious differences leads to increased trust between

doctor and patient, resulting in a compassionate and improved end-of-life care environ-

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